Pain in Women
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|Abortion Technique Risks|
|Short Term Complications|
|Pain in Women|
|Organ or System Failure|
|Infections Related Complications|
|Impact on Later Pregnancies|
"Abortion Probably Most Common Gynecologic Procedure in U.S," Richard M. Soderstrom, Ob. Gyn. News 20(3): 19, Feb. 1-14,1985.
- The likelihood of successful abortion will be improved with adequate paracervical block anesthesia. Pain intolerance in patients can lead to retained products of conception.
Guidelines for Women's Health Care, ( Washington D.C.: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1996) 174
- Abortion is listed as a common cause of acute pelvic pain.
"Pain of First Trimester Abortion: A study of Psychosocial and medical predictors," E. Belanger, R. Melzack, P. Lauzon, Pain 36: 339-350,1989.
- A Canadian study of pain in women during first trimester abortion by suction curettage under local anesthesia found that severe acute pain similar to the pain of childbirth or from cancer can occur. Pain scores were significantly higher for younger patients aged 13-17 compared to older women. Severe acute pain was more likely to occur if women were anxious before or after the abortion or if they reported depression or had moral or social concerns about abortion.
"A Causal Model of Psychosomatic Reactions to Vacuum Aspiration Abortion," M.B. Bracken, Social Psychiatry 13: 135,1978.
- Severe acute pain is more likely to occur if the abortionist is inexperienced.
"Physical and Psychological Injury in Women Following Induced Abortion," Lee Gsellman, Association for Interdisciplinary Research in Values and Social Change 5(1): 1-8, Sept./Oct.1993
- Both immediate and later abdominal pain were reported in a sample of primarily teenage postabortion women.
"Pain of first trimester abortion: It's quantification and relations with other variables," G.M. Smith et. al.. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 133: 489,1979.
- Gynecological characteristics such as uterus retroversion, history of menstrual pain and increased gestational age at the time of abortion were found to increase acute pain from abortion.
"Pain and Distress During Abortion," Nancy Wells, Health Care for Women Int'l 12: 293-302,1991.
- Abortion was found to produce greater sensory scores than menstrual pain or dental pain.
"Factors Influencing Spontaneous Abortion, Dyspareunia, Dysmenorrhea, and Pelvic Pain," Lars Heisterberg Obstet. Gynecol. 81:594,1993.
- Pelvic pain is more likely to occur in women with post abortion pelvic inflammatory disease.
"Morbidity following pelvic inflammatory disease," H Buchan et al, Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100:558, 1993
- Women with a diagnosis of PID were 10 times more likely to be admitted to a hospital for abdominal pain, and four times more likely to be admitted to a hospital for gynecological pain.
"Psychological Profile of dysphoric women post-abortion," K. Franco et. al, J. American Medical Women's Assn. 44: 113, July/Aug. 1989.
- Long lasting somatoform disorders and physical symptoms such as abdominal pain, headaches and chest pain were reported in women who reported poorly assimilating their abortion experience and were attending a post abortion support group. This was particularly the case where women also reported anniversary reactions.
"Factors Associated with More Intense Labor Pain," Gerd Fridh et. al. Research in Nursing & Health 11: 117, 1988.
- Post-abortion women were found to have an increased likelihood of severe pain in subsequent childbirth compared to women with other pregnancy outcomes.
"Aftermath of Abortion. Anniversary Depression and Abdominal Pain," J.O. Cavenar Jr., A.A. Maltbie, J.L. Sullivan, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 42(5): 433-444,1978.
- Cases are cited where abdominal cramping was associated with anniversary reaction to abortion due to incomplete or abnormal grieving of the loss of the fetus.